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Beyond Contact Tracing: Community-Based Early Detection for Ebola Response

Introduction: The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa raised many questions about the control of infectious disease in an increasingly connected global society. Limited availability of contact information made contact tracing diffcult or impractical in combating the outbreak. 

Methods: We consider the development of multi-scale public health strategies that act on individual and community levels. We simulate policies for community-level response aimed at early screening all members of a community, as well as travel restrictions to prevent inter-community transmission. 

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Late Ebola Virus Relapse Causing Meningoencephalitis: a Case Report

thelancet.com - May 18, 2016 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30386-5

Interpretation

Our report shows that previously unanticipated, late, severe relapses of Ebola virus can occur, in this case in the CNS. This finding fundamentally redefines what is known about the natural history of Ebola virus infection. Vigilance should be maintained in the thousands of Ebola survivors for cases of relapsed infection. The potential for these cases to initiate new transmission chains is a serious public health concern.

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Casual healthcare contact with Ebola survivors poses low risk

Non-invasive contact with Ebola survivors 6 weeks after the virus has been cleared poses little risk for healthcare workers, though contact with semen, ocular humor, and cerebrospinal fluid requires Ebola-appropriate precautions, according to a study yesterday in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

A cross-sectional cohort study evaluated 555 specimens from 112 Ebola survivors without fever seeking follow-up care at a clinic in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from Apr 2 to Jun 16, 2015. Almost one third of survivors (34, or 30%) were under the age of 16, and 50 (40%) were male.

Samples were obtained from the armpit (103 specimens), blood (93), conjunctiva (92), forehead (54), mouth (105), rectum (17), semen (1), urine (69), and vagina (21). The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days.

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Sexual transmission involved in tail end of Ebola epidemic

Some of the final cases of Ebola in Sierra Leone were transmitted via unconventional routes, such as semen and breastmilk, according to the largest analysis to date of the tail-end of the epidemic.


An international team of researchers has produced a detailed picture of the latter stages of the outbreak in Sierra Leone, using real-time sequencing of Ebola virus genomes carried out in a temporary laboratory in the country.

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Deadly virus detected in sperm of survivors months after recovery

The deadly virus is passed on through contact with body fluids and 

The epidemic has now been declared over but researchers have monitored 450 survivors of both sexes for a year, testing tears, saliva, faeces, vaginal fluids and semen every three months thereafter.

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I knew death was imminent': nurse Pauline Cafferkey on surviving Ebola

Pauline Cafferkey opens her bathroom cabinet and reaches for a tub of tablets.

“So this is where I keep medications,” she explains in a quiet, matter-of-fact voice, before taking me through the roster of drugs she takes daily, to keep epileptic seizures, spinal swelling, nerve pain and generalised body aches at bay.

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WHO Ebola Situation Report

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Researchers look to repurpose approved drugs to treat Zika virus

published by 

6:47 p.m. EDT May 2, 2016

ATLANTA — The need for drugs to prevent and treat Zika infections grows with every new patient diagnosed. The virus causes devastating birth defects and is strongly linked to a type of paralysis called Guillain-Barre syndrome.

There are currently no approved drugs against Zika; developing a new medication for any disease can take 10 to 20 years.

"The sense of urgency is enormous," said Mauro Martins Teixeira, who heads the immunopharmacology laboratory at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. "In an emergency, everyone wants quick answers."

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Ebola Carriers? Why The Virus Keeps Coming Back

            

Source: World Health Organization - Credit: Michaeleen Doucleff and Alyson Hurt/NPR

CLICK HERE - RESEARCH - Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains

The West African countries at the center of the epidemic have had flareups even after being declared Ebola-free by the World Health Organization.

npr.org - by Michaeleen Doucleff - April 29, 2016

Just when health officials think the Ebola outbreak is over in West Africa, the virus pops up again seemingly out of the blue. It's happened at least five times so far.

Now scientists are starting to figure out why: The virus can lay dormant in a survivor for more than year and then re-emerge to infect others.

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Guinea - Ebola: Situation Report - April 18, 2016

ambafrance-gn.org

Translation to English via Google Translate . . .

New cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have been reported in the prefecture of N'Zérékoré in Forest Guinea.

Any movement in this area is not recommended except for participation in pre-approved medical missions.

epidemiological situation in the April 16, 2016

- No new confirmed case to April 16.

- Since February 29 (1st suspected case): 10 probable and confirmed cases (seven confirmed and 3 probable).

- 8 deaths (probable and confirmed cases). No health staff is concerned

1. Health monitoring of the Embassy of France

- Continuous Embassy of France to follow in real time the evolution of the situation in conjunction with the Guinean Ministry of Health, WHO and NGOs on the ground, its European partners, and in Paris with the Crisis Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

2. Tips and Recommendations

- To limit the minimum necessary traveling in areas where the epidemic is active.

- Do not eat bushmeat.

- Wash hands frequently.

- Do not touch prolonged sick with a high fever or gastroenteritis.

- When a person has on the temperature, how to deal remains: malaria research, medical and surveillance to monitor the disease.

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